Washington - Monica Soltes was excited 10 years ago to leave
Merrill Lynch and start her own business as an independent financial planner in
After she fell off a porch at her cousin's cottage and broke
her elbow, her dreams unravelled.
Following multiple surgeries that confined her to bed,
Soltes was diagnosed with a hormonal disease that is weakening her bones. She
also ran out of money, signed up for disability benefits and has been unable to
The 47-year-old from Michigan is among the 8.7 million
American workers on the US disability rolls, an important part of the social
Since the recession began in 2007, she has been joined by a
record number of people seeking disability benefits, raising questions about the
programme's solvency and casting a pall over future prospects for US economic
Applicants soared to a record high of 2.94 million in 2010,
and have held above 18 per 1 000 workers in the past three years - a far higher
rate than in previous recessions.
“There are serious concerns that this increase in disability
benefits is a type of 'hidden unemployment'," said Richard Burkhauser, a
professor of economics at Cornell University.
Even though only 35% of applicants are awarded disability,
those receiving disability benefits now account for 5.6% of the working age
population, up from about 4.5% in 2007. At this rate of growth, Burkhauser
estimates that total would reach over 7% by 2018.
The problem is those on disability rarely return to work, reducing
the overall size of the labour force and weakening the US economy's growth
prospects. Rising gross domestic product (GDP) depends upon a growing workforce
and rising productivity.
Since the recession began, the share of Americans actively
looking for work, known as the labour participation rate, has fallen to 63.6%
from 66% in 2007.
Some people give up looking for work temporarily, but the
size of the decline has perplexed economists and disability is clearly a
JP Morgan estimates it accounts for half a percentage point
of the drop. With jobs scarce, it causes little drag on growth.
But Chris Low, chief economist at FTN Financial, said over
time, disability will rob roughly $250bn - or 1.6% - from total output each
year once the economy returns to full employment, probably within the next five
to seven years. This will also widen the budget deficit.
"There is no loss of GDP right away, as long as there
is an ample surplus of employment. Think about it, would it really make a
difference to us if there were two or three fewer people applying for our job
opening?" he said.
"But when the economy finally starts getting close to
full employment, the Federal Reserve will have to tap the brakes sooner. GDP
will have to slow to 2% to 2.5% a year or two sooner than would otherwise be
the case," Low said.
Lost skills, lost labour
The longer someone is out of the workforce, the more their
skills grow outdated and the harder it is to return to work.
They may also lose healthcare coverage. Not all employees
are offered health insurance, while disability recipients are covered by the
federal Medicare healthcare programme. The result is that only 3% of people who
claim disability ever get another job within 10 years.
Soltes is keenly aware of the difficulties. Since her
diagnosis, she has moved in with her uncle in Michigan.
After receiving her first disability benefits in 2006, she
tried to sell Medicare healthcare plans. The business did not succeed and she
now wants to work as a business adviser for the disabled.
"Whatever I do, it will be self-employment. It would be
impossible for me to become someone's employee. I must go at my own pace - not
someone else's - and do what my heart says must be done," Soltes said.
The declining share of working age people in the workforce
and the high level of unemployment has caught the attention of Federal Reserve
chairperson Ben Bernanke.
"Although most spells of unemployment are disruptive or
costly, the persistently high rate of long-term unemployment we have seen over
the past three years or so is especially concerning," the US central bank
chief said in a speech on labour in March.
Not only is there a personal cost ranging from lost skills
to stress-related illnesses and worsening health, it strains public finances,
he said. Payroll tax revenue is lost and benefit payouts rise to support the
unemployed and their families.
Bernanke has made it clear that he is ready to provide
further monetary support to help the economy if the US labour market fails to
The April payrolls report was far from encouraging, showing
only 115 000 new jobs created - about half the pace needed for healthy growth -
and the labour participation rate hitting a 30-year low 63.6% of the
Economists say part of the rise in disability claims may be
due to people nearing retirement who ignored a health problem when the job
market was strong, but then seek benefits when they lose their job as a bridge
until they qualify for Social Security pension plans.
Yet it is not the only reason. An ageing population
accounted for two-thirds of the rise in claims from 2000-07 as so-called baby
boomers entered their 50s and 60s, when disabilities are more common, but they
have only accounted for 10% of growth from 2007-10.
"If you look at the people on disability, around 40%
are in their 60s. But younger people in their 30s and in their 40s have grown a
"That is part of what has been driving the
programme," said Mark Duggan, an economist at the Wharton School of the
University of Pennsylvania.
Duggan and other economists say the major change in the
growth rate stems from a series of reforms in the mid-1980s, which changed the
focus of screening from medical criteria to working ability.
Almost half of disability claims are for problems such as
back pain and anxiety, which are more difficult to verify. This has led to
thousands of new appeals filed every month before the US administrative courts.
Soltes also said there are very few incentives for getting
off the disability rolls, which pay an average cash benefit of $1 100 per
month. While that is less than in most advanced economies, those in the United
States are also provided Medicare health insurance.
"They are not encouraged to go back to work. I have
gone to multiple meetings on a programme called Ticket to Work and there were
only five people who showed up," she said.
If people do return to work, they could lose benefits such
as health insurance, which further discourages some from looking, said Richard
Johnson, director of the programme on retirement policy at the Urban Institute
Economists said these issues would need to be addressed to
reverse the advance.
"If you provide incentives to people to go back to
work, they do that," Barry Lundquist, president of the Council for
Disability Awareness, a non-profit organisation which advises disabled workers.
There is a pressing reason for change. At the current rate
disability rolls will run out of funds in 2016, adding to strains on the
country's debt load, already at $15 trillion.
In December 2011 alone, the programme paid out $4.3bn more
than it collected in tax revenue and it paid a total of $128.9bn last year.
The disability programme is funded mainly by payroll taxes,
with additional revenue from interest on the assets in the trust fund, and
income from the tax levied on those who receive social security retirement
"To keep the combined system afloat, we're going to
have to raise taxes, cut benefits, or probably do both," said the Urban