Durban - International climate negotiators were at odds
Tuesday on how to raise billions of dollars to help poor countries cope with
global warming. A major shipping group is willing to help, endorsing a proposal
for a carbon tax on vessels carrying the world's trade.
Details of the tussle over funding emerged as the United Nation's
weather agency reported that 2011 was tied as the 10th hottest year since
records began in 1850. Arctic sea ice, a barometer for the entire planet, had
shrunk to a record low volume, said the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).
Putting the final touches on what's known as the Green
Climate Fund is a top issue at the 192-party UN climate conference that was in
its second day on Tuesday in Durban, and one
of the keys of a strategy to contain greenhouse gas emissions and keep global
warming within manageable limits.
The two-week conference is to finalise a plan on managing
climate finances, due to scale up to $100bn annually by 2020.
The International Chamber of Shipping, representing about 80% of the world's merchant marine, joined forces with aid groups Oxfam and WWF International on Tuesday to urge the conference to adopt guidelines for a levy
on carbon emissions by ships.
Details of any levy would be worked out by the International
Maritime Organisation, the UN agency regulating international shipping, the aid
groups and the chamber said in a joint statement.
"Shipping has to take responsibility for the emissions
and get to grips and drive them down, and they see that the best way to do that
it to have a universal charge applied to all ships that is going to generate
billions of dollars" to fight climate change, Tim Gore of Oxfam said on
the sidelines of the climate conference.
About 50 000 cargo ships carry 90% of world trade, and most
ships are powered by heavily polluting oil known as bunker fuels. Last July the
UN maritime organisation decided that new cargo vessels must meet energy
efficiency standards and cut pollution.
It was the first climate change measure to apply equally to
countries regardless of whether they are from the industrialised or developing
At the conference, differences came into focus over the
Green Climate Fund.
Delegations disagreed about how independent the fund will
be, by whom it will be guided over the years, and whether the bulk of the money
will come from public funds and government aid or from private sources and
A 40-nation committee worked on a draft agreement in several
lengthy meetings over the last year, but a consensus at the final meeting last
month was blocked by objections from the United States and Saudi Arabia. Now
negotiators in Durban must settle the final disputes.
"We are going to have a very thorough and open
discussion on that very contentious paper," said Pedro Pedroso, the
delegate from Cuba.
US delegate Jonathan Pershing said on Monday the US has
"substantive concerns" about the committee's plan, but "we
believe these issues can be fixed."
Washington wants to ensure that private investments are not
hamstrung by bureaucracy and that they can bypass any approval process by
The world temperatures report released on Tuesday provided a
bleak backdrop to negotiators seeking ways to limit pollution blamed for global
2011 has been a year of extreme weather, the WMO reported.
Drought in East Africa has left tens of thousands dead; lethal floods submerged
large areas of Asia; the United States suffered 14 separate weather
catastrophes with damage topping $1bn each, including severe drought in Texas
and the southwest, heavy floods in the northeast and the Mississippi valley,
and the most active tornado season ever known.
"The science is solid and proves unequivocally that the
world is warming," said R D J Lengoasa, the WMO's deputy director, and
human activity is a significant contributor.
"Climate change is real, and we are already observing
its manifestations in weather and climate patterns around the world," he